Saturday, May 5, 2012

3 Measures for Avoiding Risks of Bloodborne Pathogens Due to Indirect Contact

Bloodborne pathogens are known to cause many contagious diseases including some that do not have any definitive cure, thus making them one of the biggest threats in the healthcare field. Realizing that taking adequate preventive measures is the best way to keep such diseases at bay, premier healthcare organizations and even the industry has stressed on the importance of bloodborne pathogen certification courses which impart the requisite knowledge to the employees for avoiding the ever-present risk of such infections.

Recognizing symptoms of such diseases, understanding and following the exposure control plan formulated by your employer and using the proper gear during the administration of minor treatments and for invasive medical procedures like surgeries are taught in such courses. However the threat of bloodborne pathogens continues to remain high even after administering treatment due to faulty and outright unsafe follow-up practices.

In addition to certain prominent topics like universal precautions and infection control a bloodborne pathogen certification also teaches you to avoid threats due to indirect contact by adopting the following 3 measures.

• Safe Disposal: Just because the treatment procedure is complete doesn't mean that you are no longer at risk from bloodborne pathogens. You can still contract diseases if you come in contact with carelessly discarded needles and other contaminated materials like used gloves, bandages and gauze. Some of the organisms remain potent for a number of days even if the blood or fluid dries up. One of the modules in your training will also tell you the importance of safe disposal of used materials. This will include using a sharps container for putting used needles, broken glass and any other sharp and disposable instruments so as not to injure yourself as well as others. Also any other contaminated items must be put in special bags meant for the purpose and promptly taken to the designated area for disposal by the waste management workers.

• Proper Labelling: A training course will further teach you the importance of labels and also how to identify standard signs and symbols used to indicate hazardous materials and areas. When disposing of contaminated materials you must ensure that the bags and containers are properly labelled so that the other staff will be cautious when handling the same. Similarly fluid and blood samples for testing must also be labelled and stored safely. In addition you will understand the danger of storing food and eating near places where such infected materials are kept.

• Maintaining Hygiene: Another important but oft neglected aspect of healthcare is the maintenance of proper hygiene. The course will tell you how following a set of simple hygiene steps are the most effective ways to prevent infection due to such pathogens. It will tell you the proper techniques for hand washing when performing routine duties and even in cases of accidental exposure.

Studies have pointed out that the risks of infection in a healthcare facility continue to be high due to poor implementation of safety measures. A bloodborne pathogen certification course will tell you the importance of such measures and also how to implement them for increasing safety.

For more information, please visit our bloodborne pathogens certification website.

Natural Cure for Emphysema With Some Recommended Herbs

If you're one of the millions of people who have been on cigarettes for a long time, there is a big probability that you already have acquired emphysema. The scientific definition of emphysema is "a chronic, irreversible disease of the lungs characterized by abnormal enlargement of air spaces in the lungs." In short, this is a lung disease that as of yet has no known scientific cure. Symptoms include being easily fatigued, shortness of breath, and having difficulty taking in oxygen after exerting even the slightest movements.

The process of how emphysema is dangerous is actually a simple one. The body needs oxygen to live. We take in oxygen and give out carbon dioxide. People with emphysema have a hard time doing these two simple things. This can cause a lot of complications, including erythrocytosis, which means the person's blood contains an unusually high level of red blood cells. Symptoms may include dizziness, lightheadedness, headaches, and many more.

Most people who suffer from emphysema are guilty of having been long-term smokers. The problem with this is that the symptoms do not generally come out until years after the start of smoking. It usually comes out when the individual's physical attributes start to deteriorate and this is where emphysema starts to work.

There are a few cases where emphysema is genetic in nature (for example, alpha 1 antitrypsin). Majority, though, are chain smokers. Tobacco or marijuana, it doesn't really matter. If they're regular smokers, they have a big chance of developing this dreaded disease.

Here are some of our recommended natural cure for emphysema:

   1. Astralagus - Chinese herb that speeds up the healing in the bronchial tubes and clears the lungs for better breathing.
   2. Clearlungs - an herbal combination from Ridgecrest that promotes healing from shortness of breath and other respiratory-related symptoms.
   3. Cordyceps - works within the Chinese belief that the kidney and the lungs are in synergy, and cordyceps produce excellent oxygenation for the kidneys.
   4. Ephedra or Thyme - are also great for respiratory orders. Be warned though, ephedra is not recommended for those suffering with anxiety, glaucoma, or heart disease.
   5. Licorice extract - they help increase the energy levels and also improve internal organ functions. Be careful not to overuse this though (not more than 7 days in a row) as it can rapidly elevate blood pressure.
   6. Other useful herbs - Alfalfa, Fenugreek, Fresh Horseradish, Mullein Tea and Rosemary.

There is one Natural cure for emphysema that is gaining popularity across the medical fields because of its simplicity yet powerful healing nature. This is the self-administered oxygen therapy. All diseases (emphysema, AIDS, cancer, heart disorders, etc) are caused by viruses or bacteria, this is the basic truth. They need a body almost devoid of oxygen to thrive. Therefore, logic suggests that by supplying oxygen to the body, these bacteria cannot survive. If the body has the right amount of oxygen, the viruses and microbes cannot live. IF you are interested in knowing more about this revolutionary therapy, explore it and we can help you.

3 Reasons Why First Aid Certification Is So Vital For First Responders

First aid is the procedure for providing immediate assistance in case of injuries or illnesses to stabilize the person till a more advanced medical help takes over treatment or until the person reaches a hospital. The versatility and range of this initial procedure is such that it can address certain minor issues entirely and can even prevent fatality in a life threatening situation.

During an emergency the first responders on the scene provide the required first aid. At times they can be members of the public who happen to be nearby and have had some prior training in first aid, however in a majority of cases professionals like paramedics and even firefighters and the police arrive first and have to administer suitable first aid.

The nature of the job of first responders is such that completing a first aid certification course is a must; the following points will bring out the importance.

• Increased Threats: The environment you live in today is changing rapidly where constant advances in the society and economy have a huge impact on your lives. While such development has its advantages, the increase in population, number of vehicles, increased traffic, reliance on machinery and electronic gadgets, more high-rises, and changed lifestyle have all lead to an increase in the number of accidents and also cause a significantly higher number of health problems. In current times the first responder has to tackle many more cases and that too of diverse types. A first aid course will ensure that such a professional learns about all the different possibilities and the ways to handle them.

• Stress Management: The job of a first responder is extremely stressful. These professionals arrive on the scene when the person's condition is the most precarious and to add to that they do not have the support of any kind of prior knowledge or test reports unlike the hospital staff, and have to ascertain the situation and proceed to administer treatment as quickly as possible. Moreover there is often a group of bystanders at such places who might make the movement difficult. More often than not first responders will find themselves in chaotic and rather unfavorable circumstances and thus come under a lot of stress. First aid training teaches such professionals how to manage stress and still provide the most effective treatment to the victim.

• Safety: A scene of an accident often poses several safety issues like fire, falling debris, live wires, oncoming traffic, poisonous gases and rapidly flowing water. Besides effective management of the victim a first aid course will teach you to look for any potential dangers nearby before approaching the site because the safety of first responders is as important as that of the victim.

Getting a first aid certification is required if you want a job as a first responder like a paramedic, but in addition such training is advantageous as it will give you the competence to address any unknown threats and in better management of the victim, onlookers and even your own self

Tennis Elbow Treatment - Braces and Supports: Why They're a Bad Idea

Tennis Elbow Treatment: Should you wear some kind of support, such as a brace, splint, wrap or strap to treat your Elbow Tendonitis?

In most cases, NO - You shouldn't actually!

Not if your goal is healing, and not just pain relief, anyway.

Yes, it's true that most of the "authorities," medical websites and various blogs do advise you to utilize some kind of support for a few weeks in the name of "resting, protecting and healing your Tennis Elbow,"

And it certainly sounds like the right thing to do - BUT, there are several reasons why "supports" do not support healing, (in most cases) and why those supports can actually hurt you instead.

(The exception being while you're playing Tennis, golf or some other sport that involves dynamic, forceful activity, because you've decided to keep playing in spite of your injury.)

Okay, but what about the rest of the time?

Tennis Elbow, along with most other forms of Tendonitis, is usually not the kind of injury that benefits from being bound up or immobilized with some kind of restrictive brace or support for days or weeks.

In other words, restricting movement with a brace:

    * Doesn't help this kind of tendon injury heal...
    * Although it may very well feel a lot better temporarily!
    * Which is deceptive because having less pain and feeling better is one of the ways we can tell that an injury is healing and getting better.

The problem is that even though there are a lot of things you can do to make your Tennis Elbow feel better, (like icing, rest, anti-inflammatories, painkillers, creams and Cortisone shots.)

All these so-called treatments do is trick you by easing and postponing your pain for a little while - None of them will help you heal. (Some, like Cortisone shots, can damage you!)

And unfortunately, "supports" are no exception.

So, why then doesn't bracing or supporting your muscles, tendons or your entire elbow help your injury heal?

If you broke your arm, then you'd certainly have to put in a cast while the bone heals.

If you sprain your ankle badly then you'd have to wrap it for a few days - No question.

So what's so different about Tennis Elbow!?

First of all, it has almost nothing in common with a broken bone, and generally very little in common with a sprain.

It's not a sprain or a strain (usually) - Meaning there is usually no major tear (strain) in the muscle or tendon that needs to be protected from movement, in which case a brace or support probably would be needed at first.

Tennis Elbow is a tendon injury, and most of the time the tendons that are injured are NOT badly torn in one big, traumatic event - They're damaged gradually.

    * And the key problem is that Tendons heal much more slowly, in part because they have a much smaller blood supply
    * So slowly, in fact, the biggest risk with tendons is that they don't heal at all - and that they gradually break down instead - (Technically this is called 'Tendinosis', by the way.)

And that's what's really going on more often than not in the typical case of Tennis Elbow: Gradual breakdown and degeneration.

(Forget about the InflammaSCAM / inflammation myth, too, by the way, but that's another story.)

And the very last thing you want to do is to reduce that circulation and blood supply to your tendons even more as they're trying to heal.

Unfortunately that's exactly what wearing a brace, splint, band, strap or any other kind of so-called support does; it tends to reduce the circulation in the area you're wearing it around.

It does that in two ways:

   1. First indirectly by restricting the movement of your muscles, tendons and elbow joint. Less movement = Less circulation, because muscle movement is essential for good blood (and lymph) flow,
   2. And second by directly compressing the tissues and blood vessels in that area. Yes, even if it's not that tight.

Naturally, the tighter and more restrictive it is, and the longer you wear it the worse it is.

Then there's the Scar Tissue issue. The other big downside with supports.

The compression and reduced mobility tends to encourage sticky scar tissue, which further binds and restricts your muscles and tendons.

I'm sure you will agree losing your flexibility to a bunch of nasty Scar Tissue and having your healing process stall are the last things you want!

Muscles and tendons actually need gentle movement and mobility to heal - (except right after a major tear, which I've already mentioned is rarely the case with Tennis Elbow).

Gentle movement during most if not all of the healing process helps the repair process and helps to prevent excessive Scar Tissue build up.

In conclusion, most of the time it only makes sense to wear a brace or support:

   1. If you're sure you've suffered a significant tear,
   2. Or when you're on the tennis court or golf course or engaging in some kind of short-term forceful activity, like hammering nails or digging in your garden.

In the latter case to protect your injury somewhat from the risk of further damage.

But never during the day while you're walking around, sitting at your computer - or worst of all while you're working (unless your work is high force / high impact, like construction).

Forget the idea that wearing a support hours at a time, for days, weeks or months is an effective treatment for Tennis Elbow. It's not going to help you heal.

Want to learn more facts about Tennis Elbow treatment, dispel more myths - And discover how to help speed your tendon healing naturally?

Then I invite you to visit my Tennis Elbow Classroom: A self-help video guide to easily learning to do your own Tennis Elbow treatment

(No outrageous "miracle-cure claims," gimmick selling - OR affiliate offers. I promise!)

I'm the Neuromuscular Therapist who "Wrote The eBook" on Tennis Elbow Tendonitis ten years ago. I've been treating it successfully even longer - And I'm ready to be your personal or your virtual 'Tennis Elbow Tutor'

Health Club Marketing - Are You on Autopilot? You've Got It All Wrong

Even in the advertising, this industry is notorious for running a reflection of these misguided assumptions. The fact of the matter is, we push these cookie cutter images of "fit people" as if everyone who comes to us has the same ideal look, or physique.

The challenge is, there are a lot of people on autopilot. Even if we do a half hearted job of asking the prospects what their goals are, I'd imagine most of them can sense the insincerity, and give us vanilla, autopilot answers that merely echo what we hear from anyone else we ask. I actually think its because they know what we want to hear, because they sense that we might be on autopilot too.

I learned a long time ago, while running a Women's Only facility, that the real reason my members joined was never as simple as "I want to drop a few pounds", or "I just want to feel better". Had I let these basic answers fly, then it may have been the only responses I ever received, which begs the question why even go through the motions, if we already know the answer? However, once I learned to ask more probing questions, and more importantly, display the fact that I truly cared (autopilot, off) what my guests wanted to accomplish, and the real reasons why they came to the club, a whole new revelation became apparent. People will share with us, their true "very personal" reasons for wanting to exercise.

It doesn't take very long to dig beneath the surface and find that people's motivations are firmly rooted in psychological reasons, and not physical outcomes. People want to feel different about themselves, or have others feel a certain way. A woman may say she wants to lose weight but really she wants to be more attractive to others, because of the confidence it can provide. They may want to get in shape for a wedding, because they are starting their lives with someone and want their mates to be excited about the future, and strengthen the bond. Athletes want the increased performance because people in their lives count on them, to win the big game. They are pushed to perform better because they want to make mom and dad proud, and they can imagine themselves basking in the glory of the winning touchdown, or stolen base that seals the game. Heck, it may even be related to getting into college, on a scholarship, so they can go to an expensive school.

The most effective sales people will always be able to dig below the obvious, and continue to flush out their prospects true emotional reason for the goals they have. What is important is going beyond the obvious, and sharing with them how you can help them satisfy the emotional needs they have. When someone says "I want to drop a few pounds", it is our job to ask why they want to lose the weight. How will that make them feel? How will this weight lose improve their life? Where do they see themselves, once they have accomplished this weight loss goal?

Some fit pros are uncomfortable with the probing nature of these questions, but if you are serious about helping your clients achieve results, then you need to understand why they want to achieve certain things. This not only helps you sell the program on the benefits, it will also provide the solution to their problems. It is probably more important to motivate them, to continue to push, when working towards their goals.

Don't just glance over your questions, or assume everyone has the same set of goals. Think of why you do what you do. Is it as simple as earning a paycheck? No? So what is it? When you figure this out because I asked, then I bet you will be more motivated to do good work.

Do you own a health club and like what I have to say? Join me in my efforts to change the landscape of the health club industry with unique health club marketing strategies, membership sales techniques, steps for opening a gym, tips to retain your existing members, and much more. We're in the office Monday - Friday, until 8pm EST, and can be reached directly at 904.807.5950. I am your trusted friend and partner as you strive to operate a more successful health club business. I look forward to the opportunity to serve you and all of your fitness business needs.

Curtis Mock

The Importance of Using Glycerine Soap

The earth is polluted with many chemicals, and it is upon us to protect our skin from this toxic environment. You can achieve this very efficiently by using natural skin-care products such as glycerine soap. Such soap will assist you in protecting your skin as well as your health in general. It usually has a rich, transparent and dark amber colour. It is this transparent property that makes it easy to differentiate from other soaps. The soap appears clear due to the soap molecules' arrangement found in this kind of soap, which can be induced through addition of sugar and alcohol. Here, the molecules are prevented from becoming opaque.

There is a high probability that you may have used some soap without realising that it is glycerine soap. This soap, as the name suggests, is made up of glycerol, a biochemical element which is composed of fats and oils. Glycerol is derived from vegetable oil and animal fats. This involves extraction and a rendering process in which lye is used. After extraction is when you add it to any soap mixture to produce a clear soap.

Even though most people take a bath on a daily occasion, they find out that they still suffer from dry flaky skin from time to time. The main cause may be the soap that they usually use was made from chemicals that readily react with their delicate skin. These are soaps that are commercially produced and are mostly made from petroleum. They are readily available at local stores and supermarkets making them an easy option comparing with making your own soap.

However, if you make your own soap using glycerine, you stand a chance of not only saving your money but also saving your skin from unnecessary harm. Glycerine attracts moisture and will make your skin look healthier, fresher and radiant all day. Some of the skin disorders such as eczema and psoriasis can be prevented using these soaps. They can also be really effective in removing pimples thus ensuring your skin always appear smooth and healthy. Since you use the melt and pour method in making them, you can easily make your own by following simple instructions.

Glycerine can be also used in making a decorative soap giving it a transparent and beautiful appearance. The purpose of making a decorative soap is to beautify your house or giving it away as a gift to a friend. You can make it have a pleasant smell by adding synthetics or additives.

We provide the best info about glycerine soap and decorative soap. For further details please visit the provided links.

Is the Head-To-Toe Physical Exam Practically Worthless for Healthy Patients Who Are Asymptomatic?

As a health economist, I try to keep abreast of new trends in health care insurance. One trend I have found is that consumers can now purchase short term health insurance policies that will pay for doctor visits if the patient is sick, but they will not pay for the standard "complete physical" associated with an initial visit. Some primary care doctors will not see a new patient unless the doctor can bill insurance for $350 - $500 for a comprehensive visit. If you search on the Internet for "head-to-toe physical" and "outdated," you will find many web pages that provide arguments and evidence that the complete physical is indeed not necessary but may be reassuring for some patients. In contrast, the blood tests are ten times more important than a complete physical for new patients.

We often hear the argument that a good baseline physical exam with lab work is important and can help engage the patients in their own care as well as identify those patients at risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other problems. The patient centered medical home model is built on coordination of care, not sick care. For standard health insurance policies (those polices other than short term policies), at least one annual "physical exam" or wellness visit is covered 100% by insurance and no cost to the consumer.

I am looking for a new primary care physician and will be seeing one at the end of the month. This appointment is for a new patient and will be coded for insurance as "wellness visit, physical exam" even though there will be little or no physical exam. Instead, I plan to use the time to tell the doctor what blood tests I want on this visit to establish a baseline, and in the process of explaining why I want them, he will learn about my medical history. I doubt there will be any time remaining in the appointment for even a limited physical exam, but we shall see.

My cholesterol numbers are not simply excellent, they are outstanding. The same is true for my C-reactive protein (a measure of heart attack risk) and homocysteine (a measure of stroke risk). I have not had a complete physical exam in over 20 years and have not missed them one bit. I find it appalling that any physician would palpate my abdomen and then tell me I don't have any tenderness there, as if I did not already know that. I am all in favor of preventive health care, but I agree with the U.S. Preventive Health Task Force that the complete physical exam has not been shown to be cost effective at preventing disease. Blood testing, on the other hand, is critical to monitoring overall health and critical to formulating a strategy to prevent diseases and medical conditions.

I have been asking primary care docs for several years now if they have ever found an abnormality on physical exam in an asymptomatic patient that was not picked up as part of standard screening (PAP smear, colonoscopy, lab testing, etc.) There have been minimal positive responses. (One doctor found an oral cancer). Standard screening could be done much more effectively and efficiently by non-physicians as part of a public health campaign: think of the Polio vaccination campaigns of the 1940s and 1950s.

Having said that, a consultation with the patient/client for health planning purposes -- identifying what is important to him/her and the impact of health issues on those things that are important and then coming up with a mutually acceptable plan on how to achieve those goals -- is probably invaluable, especially if the physician has no financial interest in the choices that are made.

Yet we find an amazing lack of evidence to support "annual physicals exams" leading to early detection of health problems. I invite the proverbial interested reader to click on the link*at the bottom of this article to find the reference for the National Institute of Health's pubmed link related to annual physicals.

In examining a population of junior high and high school student athletes who were required to get "participation physicals" in order to play on sports teams, one study found of 1268 students, 5% were referred to specialists, but only 0.2% were disqualified from playing the sports activity. The author concludes that the majority of those disqualified would have been discovered by obtaining a detailed medical history alone. Another study of 763 student athletes found 3 positive referrals total. Factoring in the cost of all the health workers involved, each of these three findings came at a cost of $4563. In addition, a total of 16 medical problems were found during the course of the 763 student physicals, BUT 15 of the 16 problems were, and could have been identified, from taking the patient's medical history alone.

How do you think most primary care physicians would react if a new patient went over his medical history but declined more than a cursory physical exam in favor of getting his desired blood tests? Would the typical primary care doctor simply note "patient declines complete exam" and move on, or would he/she badger the patient into getting a complete physical, because that the way the doctor always handles new patients? One problem with health care is that patients are generally obsequious and fall into lockstep patterns of getting certain exams or tests even though they have little to no benefit on overall health.

I frequently hear from foreign-born and foreign-trained medical doctors that "here in the US, doctors spend too much time on treating people after they get ill and not enough time of preventing the illness from occurring." But what does this mean in practical terms? (1) doctors should be ordering more blood tests to determine average glucose levels (HbA1C test) such that all patients know their HbA1C numbers and whether they are inching towards diabetes. Other helpful blood tests would include a hormone panel for all middle-aged or older patients, and then the doctors need to learn about optimal levels for these hormones, rather than ignorantly dismissing results that fall in the "normal average" range but may be sub-optimal. (2) doctors need to have staff who can answer patients' health questions, e.g., whether the patient should start taking magnesium, without placing a burden on the doctor to answer all these questions. (3) patients need to be given targets for HbA1C, HDL, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, cortisol, etc., to achieve through their own proactive, informed selection of food choices.

I can't think of any blood test that would be ordered solely to make a patient aware. As a general rule, no physician would be able to estimate the results from a blood test, e.g., no physician can estimate HDL cholesterol or total cholesterol just from talking to a patient and getting his medical history. When insurance companies stress preventive health, they always emphasize doctor exams over laboratory tests. But again, no doctor exam can reveal 3-month average glucose, or iron deficiency, or elevated liver enzymes. It sounds like some insurance companies want to do preventive health on the cheap, and with that attitude, they should not be surprised that the limited type of preventive care they support is next to worthless.

To say that the annual physical is worthless without reinforcing to the public that some monitoring of health is necessary probably sends the wrong message. After all, it is hard to argue that monitoring of hypertension, lipidemia and diabetes is not worthwhile. FDA has generally indicated by its refusal to approve OTC versions of the maintenance medications that the public cannot be trusted to monitor or manage these maladies.

I am all in favor of monitoring hypertension, lipidemia, and diabetes. In fact, where the Affordable Care Act recommends diabetes checking for people with hypertension, I would go further to say everyone should know his or her HbA1C number (3-month average of glycated hemoglobin). But why shouldn't those values be checked in an ordinary preventive health visit, without the need for a head-to-toe physical? None of the articles have said that lab tests are worthless; they tend to question the value of the "annual physical" for an asymptomatic healthy adult. Indeed some doctors have recognized this fact and give patients a more limited and directed physical exam. That approach seems more sensible than the "one size fits all" approach with head to toe exams.

The FDA has generally indicated that the public cannot be trusted to monitor or manage these maladies. I strongly disagree with the FDA and question its motives in preventing cholesterol and hypertension medications from being accessible OTC. I hope in my lifetime that they do become available. An enlightened individual can use the Internet to learn about drugs that lower blood pressure, glucose, and lipids, along with the drug's side effects. At-home blood pressure devices are more effective in monitoring real-world blood pressure than periodic visits to a doctor's office. An enlightened patient can precisely individualize dosing of anti-hypertensive medications to bring their blood pressure to optimal levels (below 115/75 mm Hg in most people).

For an expanded version of this article, please see

Michael A. S. Guth, Ph.D., J.D., directs Health Economics & Outcomes Research (HEOR) at Risk Management Consulting, a contract research organization based in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, where he has successfully managed the HEOR consulting business for the past ten years. He is also a licensed attorney at law with an active practice of more than 200 clients and has developed expertise on the Affordable Care Act and its implementing regulations.
Dr. Guth's principal research focus has been preventing the onset of age-related diseases known collectively as the metabolic syndrome. In the area of diabetes, he is familiar with all of the drugs used to treat the disease and their potential drawbacks. Low thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) may represent one of the most unrecognized and under-treated causes of prediabetes status affecting some 75 million Americans.
His current research comprises the optimal design of health care insurance and total health/wellness programs including preventive health strategies and employee health engagement and resiliency. Working as part of a global benefits team, he creates an integrated wellness-benefits strategy and executes programs aimed at changing mid- and high-risk behaviors. He positions wellness and disease-prevention as part of a larger strategy for medical cost containment, and contributes innovative ideas for achieving this desired result. He demonstrates thinking "outside the box" to rein in health care spending costs and reform patient utilization of medical services.
A second area of current research is the use of Clomiphene in men for hormone modulation to prevent cardiovascular disease and other consequences of the metabolic syndrome. He is Principal Investigator of a clinical study that compares use of Clomiphene with external sources of testosterone given to men; the study includes safety, efficacy, cost, and value comparisons.